About LPA & VisiRule

LPA: 39 years in applied AI

VisiRule is 100% owned and developed by Logic Programming Associates Ltd (LPA).


LPA is a small, private UK company specialising in Artificial Intelligence software solutions. LPA was founded back in 1981, and LPA staff, many of whom joined in the 80s, have extensive experience in designing and implementing practical AI software solutions. LPA engineers have advised and consulted on numerous AI projects.


Read how LPA was recognized as Artificial Intelligence Innovators by CV Magazine.


In 2019, LPA joined the Barclays Eagle Labs LawTech incubator in Notting Hill, London. Go and read the full press release.


In 2020, LPA launched a VisiRule Analytics module, and presented its new ChatBot delivery module which incorporates VisiRule decision tree logic with FAQ KB access.

LexisNexis announce new digital assistant tax advisor tool developed using VisiRule

LPA Delivers A Range Of Software Development Tools For Both Programmers And Non-Programmers

microProlog Spectrum.jpg
micro-Prolog for the BBC

History of LPA

LPA is the leading supplier of Prolog compiler systems for PCs and offers a wide range of integrated AI products based on LPA Prolog for Windows. Prolog was one of the first computer programming languages to be associated with Artificial Intelligence; the other being LISP. Prolog is still being discovered by even now by new programmers, and there is a lot of publicly available code for solving all sorts of mathematical and logical problems.

In 1981, LPA was formed to exploit the results emerging from the logic programming research team of Prof. Bob Kowalski at Imperial College, London. Amongst those making the transition from academia to industry were Brian D Steel and Clive Spenser both still with the company. They were later joined by Alan Westwood.


LPA's initial product, micro-PROLOG, was the world's first Prolog system for small machines and was implemented on many micro-computers of the time. micro-PROLOG was years ahead of its time but severely restricted by the memory limitations of 8-bit chips i.e. 64K RAM. LPA has since built products on 16-bit, 24-bit and 32-bit PCs and now on modern 64-bit cloud based servers.

In 1985, LPA helped organize the Practical Application of Prolog event which featured presenters from Microsoft, IBM, etc. Peter Reintjes gave an inspiring tutorial on Prolog for Software Engineering.

Since then, LPA has continued to develop and sell advanced software tools, and is firmly established as a leading supplier of commercial software products and solutions in the areas of Expert Systems and Artificial Intelligence. LPA has acquired a wealth of expertise in developing and delivering disruptive applications.

LPA's current range of AI tools support companies who want to build, test and deliver intelligent applications and embedded components.

Business Integrity & Contract Express

Between 1996 and 1998, based on work co-funded through a DTI Smart award, LPA developed ScaffoldIT, a tool for building dynamic documents and intelligent web sites. This technology, built using the LPA Prolog engine and associated ProWeb Server, was able to generate complex, personalised documents such as insurance policy schedules, legal contracts, and complex sales proposals, on the Web.

To exploit this research, LPA partnered with a small London law-firm, Tarlo Lyons. They set up a new company, named Business Integrity Ltd, BIL, with Clive Spenser as a Founding Director. In 2001, Legal Technology Insider reported the initial BigLaw sales of DealBuilder (as the product was then known).


The LPA software stack provided a solid and robust basis for Contract Express, and it became adopted by leading law firms such as Cliffords, Linklaters, as well as corporates such as Cisco and Microsoft. By 2012, Contract Express was being used for internal use, client facing projects and external Marketing Showcases - such as CooleyGo and Wilson Soncini's Term Sheet Generator. Jeff Thomas et al identified 14 firms offering start-up documentation using document automation tools.

As a result of the commercial success of Contract Express, BIL was acquired by Thomson Reuters in 2015. Partners and GCs trust Contract Express because lawyers are able to quickly and accurately automate and update their legal templates in Word without requiring IT specialists to convert them into programs.


This philosophy of self-service resonates with VisiRule. Both products allow non-programmers to create solutions with web-based question and answer sessions. Much of the underlying LPA software stack, that was initially used to create DealBuilder, and then later Contract Express, now forms the basis of VisiRule.

Linklaters buy DealBuilder licence

History of VisiRule

In 2004, LPA launched VisiRule, a graphical software tool which lets business users draw and deliver decision support systems, rather than have to engage programmers to write code for them. VisiRule has been extended and enhanced since then and used in many different projects ranging from machine diagnostics and fault finding to knowledge management and the automated generation of personalised financial advice and legal guidance.

VisiRule allows non-technical business users such as lawyers, accountants, tax advisers, healthcare professionals and field service agents, to develop and deliver decision support applications.

VisiRule was initially launched as a Windows desktop application but the run-time delivery was moved to the Web to support cloud-based deployment. Mobile phone delivery then followed as the popularity of smartphones grew. Browser-based authoring via VisiRule365 was added in 2018 along with VisiRule FastChart integration with Machine Learning.

TarloLyons announce SCAFFOLD
VisiRule launch 2004